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The pandemic caused a negative impact on businesses

The pandemic caused a negative impact on businesses, some had to permanently close, while others drown in debts. What happens to a limited liability company's debt if the business closes? Is the company shareholder or director personally liable to the bank?

Being a shareholder of a limited company means that the shareholder’s liability is limited to the amount, if any, that remains unpaid on his/her shares. So, the maximum amount that the shareholder can be charged for the debts of the company is the unpaid part of his/her shares, if any.  However, being a director of a limited company means that this director probably gave a personal guarantee to the bank when applying for an overdraft facility. So, if the limited company does not pay the overdraft back to the bank, the bank may enforce the payment against the director personally. Depending on the conditions of the overdraft agreement, the bank usually does not set a fixed or minimum term of the overdraft, however, it may cancel the facility at any time and demand the repayment.